Functions are the building blocks of Move programs. They are called from user transactions and from other functions and group executable code into reusable units. Functions can take arguments and return a value. They are declared with the fun keyword at the module level. Just like any other module member, by default they're private and can only be accessed from within the module.

module book::math {
    /// Function takes two arguments of type `u64` and returns their sum.
    /// The `public` visibility modifier makes the function accessible from
    /// outside the module.
    public fun add(a: u64, b: u64): u64 {
        a + b

    fun test_add() {
        let sum = add(1, 2);
        assert!(sum == 3, 0);

In this example, we define a function add that takes two arguments of type u64 and returns their sum. The function is called from the test_add function, which is a test function located in the same module. In the test we compare the result of the add function with the expected value and abort the execution if the result is different.

Function declaration

There's a convention to call functions in Move with the snake_case naming convention. This means that the function name should be all lowercase with words separated by underscores. For example, do_something, add, get_balance, is_authorized, and so on.

A function is declared with the fun keyword followed by the function name (a valid Move identifier), a list of arguments in parentheses, and a return type. The function body is a block of code that contains a sequence of statements and expressions. The last expression in the function body is the return value of the function.

fun return_nothing() {
    // empty expression, function returns `()`

Accessing functions

Just like any other module member, functions can be imported and accessed via a path. The path consists of the module path and the function name separated by ::. For example, if you have a function called add in the math module in the book package, the path to it will be book::math::add, or, if the module is imported, math::add.

module book::use_math {
    use book::math;

    fun call_add() {
        // function is called via the path
        let sum = math::add(1, 2);

Multiple return values

Move functions can return multiple values, which is useful when you need to return more than one value from a function. The return type of the function is a tuple of types. The return value is a tuple of expressions.

fun get_name_and_age(): (vector<u8>, u8) {
    (b"John", 25)

Result of a function call with tuple return has to be unpacked into variables via let (tuple) syntax:

// Tuple must be destructured to access its elements.
// Name and age are declared as immutable variables.
let (name, age) = get_name_and_age();
assert!(name == b"John", 0);
assert!(age == 25, 0);

If any of the declared values need to be declared as mutable, the mut keyword is placed before the variable name:

// declare name as mutable, age as immutable
let (mut name, age) = get_name_and_age();

If some of the arguments are not used, they can be ignored with the _ symbol:

// ignore the name, only use the age
let (_, age) = get_name_and_age();

Further reading