Move 2024 Migration Guide

Move 2024 is the new edition of the Move language that is maintained by Mysten Labs. This guide is intended to help you understand the differences between the 2024 edition and the previous version of the Move language.

This guide provides a high-level overview of the changes in the new edition. For a more detailed and exhaustive list of changes, refer to the Sui Documentation.

Using the New Edition

To use the new edition, you need to specify the edition in the move file. The edition is specified in the move file using the edition keyword. Currently, the only available edition is 2024.beta.

edition = "2024.beta";

Migration Tool

The Move CLI has a migration tool that updates the code to the new edition. To use the migration tool, run the following command:

$ sui move migrate

The migration tool will update the code to use the let mut syntax, the new public modifier for strucs, and the public(package) function visibility instead of friend declarations.

Mutable bindings with let mut

Move 2024 introduces let mut syntax to declare mutable variables. The let mut syntax is used to declare a mutable variable that can be changed after it is declared.

let mut declaration is now required for mutable variables. Compiler will emit an error if you try to reassign a variable without the mut keyword.

// Move 2020
let x: u64 = 10;
x = 20;

// Move 2024
let mut x: u64 = 10;
x = 20;

Additionally, the mut keyword is used in tuple destructuring and function arguments to declare mutable variables.

// takes by value and mutates
fun takes_by_value_and_mutates(mut v: Value): Value {
    v.field = 10;

// `mut` should be placed before the variable name
fun destruct() {
    let (x, y) = point::get_point();
    let (mut x, y) = point::get_point();
    let (mut x, mut y) = point::get_point();

// in struct unpack
fun unpack() {
    let Point { x, mut y } = point::get_point();
    let Point { mut x, mut y } = point::get_point();

Friends are Deprecated

In Move 2024, the friend keyword is deprecated. Instead, you can use the public(package) visibility modifier to make functions visible to other modules in the same package.

// Move 2020
friend book::friend_module;
public(friend) fun protected_function() {}

// Move 2024
public(package) fun protected_function_2024() {}

Struct Visibility

In Move 2024, structs get a visibility modifier. Currently, the only available visibility modifier is public.

// Move 2020
struct Book {}

// Move 2024
public struct Book {}

Method Syntax

In the new edition, functions which have a struct as the first argument are associated with the struct. This means that the function can be called using the dot notation. Methods defined in the same module with the type are automatically exported.

Methods are automatically exported if the type is defined in the same module as the method. It is impossible to export methods for types defined in other modules. However, you can create custom aliases for methods in the module scope.

public fun count(c: &Counter): u64 { /* ... */ }

fun use_counter() {
    // move 2020
    let count = counter::count(&c);

    // move 2024
    let count = c.count();

Methods for Built-in Types

In Move 2024, some of the native and standard types received associated methods. For example, the vector type has a to_string method that converts the vector into a UTF8 string.

fun aliases() {
    // vector to string and ascii string
    let str: String = b"Hello, World!".to_string();
    let ascii: ascii::String = b"Hello, World!".to_ascii_string();

    // address to bytes
    let bytes = @0xa11ce.to_bytes();

For the full list of built-in aliases, refer to the Standard Library and Sui Framework source code.

Borrowing Operator

Some of the built-in types support borrowing operators. The borrowing operator is used to get a reference to the element at the specified index. The borrowing operator is defined as [].

fun play_vec() {
    let v = vector[1,2,3,4];
    let first = &v[0];         // calls vector::borrow(v, 0)
    let first_mut = &mut v[0]; // calls vector::borrow_mut(v, 0)
    let first_copy = v[0];     // calls *vector::borrow(v, 0)

Types that support the borrowing operator are:

  • vector
  • sui::vec_map::VecMap
  • sui::table::Table
  • sui::bag::Bag
  • sui::object_table::ObjectTable
  • sui::object_bag::ObjectBag
  • sui::linked_table::LinkedTable

To implement the borrowing operator for a custom type, you need to add a #[syntax(index)] attribute to the methods.

public fun borrow(c: &List<T>, key: String): &T { /* ... */ }

public fun borrow_mut(c: &mut List<T>, key: String): &mut T { /* ... */ }

Method Aliases

In Move 2024, methods can be associated with types. The alias can be defined for any type locally to the module; or publicly, if the type is defined in the same module.

// my_module.move
// Local: type is foreign to the module
use fun my_custom_function as vector.do_magic;

// sui-framework/kiosk/kiosk.move
// Exported: type is defined in the same module
public use fun kiosk_owner_cap_for as KioskOwnerCap.kiosk;