Transaction is a fundamental concept in the blockchain world. It is a way to interact with a blockchain. Transactions are used to change the state of the blockchain, and they are the only way to do so. In Move, transactions are used to call functions in a package, deploy new packages, and upgrade existing ones.

Transaction Structure

Every transaction explicitly specifies the objects it operates on!

Transactions consist of:

  • a sender - the account that signs the transaction;
  • a list (or a chain) of commands - the operations to be executed;
  • command inputs - the arguments for the commands: either pure - simple values like numbers or strings, or object - objects that the transaction will access;
  • a gas object - the Coin object used to pay for the transaction;
  • gas price and budget - the cost of the transaction;


Sui transactions may consist of multiple commands. Each command is a single built-in command (like publishing a package) or a call to a function in an already published package. The commands are executed in the order they are listed in the transaction, and they can use the results of the previous commands, forming a chain. Transaction either succeeds or fails as a whole.

Schematically, a transaction looks like this (in pseudo-code):

- sender = 0xa11ce

- payment = SplitCoins(Gas, [ 1000 ])
- item = MoveCall(0xAAA::market::purchase, [ payment ])
- TransferObjects(item, sender)

In this example, the transaction consists of three commands:

  1. SplitCoins - a built-in command that splits a new coin from the passed object, in this case, the Gas object;
  2. MoveCall - a command that calls a function purchase in a package 0xAAA, module market with the given arguments - the payment object;
  3. TransferObjects - a built-in command that transfers the object to the recipient.

Transaction Effects

Transaction effects are the changes that a transaction makes to the blockchain state. More specifically, a transaction can change the state in the following ways:

  • use the gas object to pay for the transaction;
  • create, update, or delete objects;
  • emit events;

The result of the executed transaction consists of different parts:

  • Transaction Digest - the hash of the transaction which is used to identify the transaction;
  • Transaction Data - the inputs, commands and gas object used in the transaction;
  • Transaction Effects - the status and the "effects" of the transaction, more specifically: the status of the transaction, updates to objects and their new versions, the gas object used, the gas cost of the transaction, and the events emitted by the transaction;
  • Events - the custom events emitted by the transaction;
  • Object Changes - the changes made to the objects, including the change of ownership;
  • Balance Changes - the changes made to the aggregate balances of the account involved in the transaction;